By Basileus Alexios VI Komnenos Basileus Alexios VI Komnenos's Favorites Screenshots Artwork Videos Workshop Items Merchandise Collections Guides Screenshots Artwork Videos Workshop Items Merchandise Collections Guides Alexios gebruikte dit succes om zijn gezag over de westkust van Klein-Azië te herstellen. The Byzantine Empire had been shrinking during the 11th century CE, but Alexios would oversee a string of victories against the peoples harassing the borders of his kingdom. (298), Related Content Alexios’ father was John Komnenos, a senior military commander of the imperial guard (domestikos of the Scholai), and his mother, Anna Dalassena, was from a respected aristocratic family. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Forums. Basileus of New Constantinople. Alexios then responded by joining forces temporarily with the Cumans (the Turkish-speaking nomads from central Asia renowned for their archery skills) and inflicting a comprehensive defeat on the troublesome nomads on 29 April 1091 CE at the battle of Mount Lebounion. Alexius I COMNENUS (Basileus) aka Alexios I (Aleksios Alexis) KOMNENOS; EMPEROR of BYZANTIUM. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes (1067–1071), Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. ... Komnenos dynasty was in its peak under the rule of John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos. Alexios had, behoudens wat huurlingen (meest Angelsaksen), nauwelijks een leger en ook geen geld om het te betalen. "Alexios I Komnenos." Alexios, still a general but aged just 24, led a revolt against Emperor Nikephoros III (r. 1078-1081 CE) in 1081 CE after a series of damaging military defeats shrank the empire and threatened even the capital Constantinople. Subcategories. He would found the Komnenoi dynasty which included five emperors who ruled until 1185 CE. Veel vruchtbare en rijke kuststreken werden heroverd. Count Robert of Paris by Sir Walter Scott, Fiction, Historical, Literary... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He faced a series of serious military threats, and, through a combination of diplomacy, personal cunning, and his own military ability, he generally emerged the victor. Alexios I contributed a lot for the restoration of the Eastern Roman Empire. Alexios I Komnenos, Latinized as Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Discussion; Bug Reporting; Delete/Combine Pages Wat volgde is de Slag bij Dorylaeum, het Beleg van Antiochië, het Beleg van Jeruzalem en de Slag bij Ascalon. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Last modified December 12, 2017. The crises between the two halves of the Christian world deepened when the Normans headed back to Italy and began to plan for a Second Crusade, but this time against the Byzantine Empire whom western Christians always viewed with a healthy suspicion given their decadence and heretical religious practices. Initially, it seemed that the Normans and other Crusaders could usefully combine their forces with the Byzantine armies, Bohemund even swearing allegiance to the emperor along with the other Crusader leaders. Alexios I Komnenos. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Nikephoros III probeerde Alexios Komnenos erop af te sturen, maar deze weigerde tegen zijn verwant te vechten. The next wave of Crusaders to arrive in the East were a much more professional-looking group led by the finest knights and nobles of western Europe. Alexios I Komnenos of Comnenus (Grieks: Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνός, omstreeks 1048 tot 15 Augustus 1118) was van 1081 tot 1118 keiser van die Bisantynse Ryk. The hyperpyron became the new Byzantine coin standard against which all others were measured and valued until the 15th century CE. Alexios I had favoured John to succeed him over his wife Irene's favourite, the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios, who was married to their daughter Anna Komnena. https://www.ancient.eu/Alexios_I_Komnenos/. Made from electrum (a gold and silver alloy), it was worth one-third of the old standard gold nomisma, which had suffered under the fiscal policies of Alexios’ predecessor. Na de catastrofe van Manzikert (1071) en het verlies van Nicea in 1077-78, gingen de families Doukas en Komnenen ruziën over de macht, in plaats van zich te bekommeren over de situatie van het Byzantijnse Rijk. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. The work is the only such book written by a woman in the Middle Ages. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Een van de vorsten van de Eerste Kruistocht, Bohemund, de zoon van de Noorman Guiscard, had op 3 juni 1098 Antiochië veroverd. Zijn neef Tancred, die rechtstreeks naar de Levant was gezeild en nooit een eed aan de keizer had afgelegd, wilde dit echter niet erkennen en na 1111 heerste hij in Antochië. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena, and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). De kruisvaart van 1101 was duidelijk minder succesvol. License. Antioch in Syria was the next big capture in June 1098 CE, but unfortunately for Alexios, on his way to support the siege he had met refugees from the area who wrongly informed him that the Crusaders were on the brink of defeat to a huge Muslim army and so the emperor returned home. Byzantium zou die plaag nooit meer afschudden. Alexios I Komnenos ( Grieks: Αλέξιος Κομνηνός; Latijn: Alexius Comnenus; Nederlands, verouderd: Alexis Comneen) ( Constantinopel, 1056 – 15 augustus 1118) was Byzantijns keizer van 1081 tot aan zijn dood in 1118. Om de Noormannen het hoofd te bieden, deed Alexios een beroep op Venetië en dat werkte probaat, maar de prijs was bijzonder hoog. Alexios Komnenos PALAIOLOGOS (Despot) (confused with similarly-named son of Georgios ? One of his first acts was to banish his scheming sister Anna to a monastery, but at least this allowed her to write her Alexiad history in peace. Alexios II Komnenos (1180–1183) A twelve year old child when his father Manuel died, Alexios II’s reign is a brief story of inept regency and opportunistic, long-awaited usurpation. During his reign, Alexios rejuvenated the Empire, vending off attacks from the Seljuqs and the Normans. Alexius I Comnenus, also spelled Alexios I Komnenos, (born 1057, Constantinople, Byzantine Empire [now Istanbul, Turkey]—died August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) at the time of the First Crusade who founded the Comnenian dynasty and partially restored the strength of the empire after its defeats by the Normans and Turks in the 11th century. Alexios used the Crusaders well, despite the rape and pillage perpetrated by the less pious members of the western armies which were causing chaos as they crossed Europe. Daarna kwam een deel van de hoge adel van het westen. Her Alexiad covers the period 1069 to 1118 CE and is principally a tribute to her father. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Hoewel zij wel de stad Ancyra aan Alexios wisten terug te geven, gingen de Petsjenegen, die hij met de kruisvaarders had meegestuurd, roemloos ten onder. Cartwright, Mark. Met de vloot was het nog slechter gesteld. On a more positive note, Alexios supported monasteries on Mount Athos in northern Greece and gave the island of Patmos in the Aegean to Christodoulos who founded the monastery of Saint John the Theologian in 1088 CE. Alexios’ eldest daughter turned out to be a historian of note, whose work on 11th-century CE Byzantium has become an invaluable source for her modern colleagues in that field. Tenslotte wilden zij zich op gebied vestigen dat Byzantium als zijn eigen territorium beschouwde, al was het 'tijdelijk' in handen van moslims. 16 Jan 2021. Voortaan was de handel steeds meer in Venetiaanse handen en in feite werd het rijk langzamerhand gekoloniseerd. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. As part of his monetary reforms, a new coin was introduced, the hyperpyron (meaning “highly refined”), in 1092 CE. He was not the first Komnenos to rule, but it was during his reign that the dynasty came to full power. The first group to be driven back and the most dangerous were the Normans. This page was last edited on 6 October 2019, at 10:47. He re-established imperial control of the Church, reducing the power of the bishops, and he vigorously supported Orthodoxy, quashing any challengers to it. Hlaalu Agent; Dec 26, 2019; Trebizond is best successor state. Toen Malik Sjah I in 1092 stierf, werd zijn rijk in drie verdeeld. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 26 mei 2020 om 00:45. In 1084 verloor hij Antiochië aan de Seltsjoeken. Basileus Alexios VI Komnenos's wishlist. With a mixed force of Crusaders, Alexios thus managed to recapture Nicaea in 1097 CE. Alexios I Komnenos (tiếng Hy Lạp: Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 hoặc 1056 – 15 tháng 8, 1118), là Hoàng đế Đông La Mã từ năm 1081 đến năm 1118. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Alexios_I_Komnenos/. Dit gegeven kwam aan bod in Piacenza, toen vertegenwoordigers van Byzantium de situatie kwamen bepleiten bij paus Urbanus II, onderweg naar de Synode van Clermont (1095). Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Cartwright, Mark. Compulsory military service was another unfortunate reality for much of the Byzantine peasantry. Sort by: Your Ranked Order. The Treaty of Devol is signed between the, The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500-1492. Hij keerde terug naar Italië om Byzantium in de tang te nemen maar verloor de Slag bij Dyrrhachium (Durrës) en moest in 1108 noodgedwongen erkennen dat Antiochië een Byzantijns leen was. Reactions: Basileus_Komnenos. This category has only the following subcategory. Het gevolg was dat een zeer ongeregelde, plunderende menigte zich, in naam van God (Deus lo Vult! Resettling some of the defeated warriors, others were incorporated into the Byzantine army as mercenaries. However, Bohemund continued with successes in Macedon and Thessaly, and Robert’s return saw a resounding defeat of Alexios’ Venetian allies in 1084 CE. The relations were thus irrevocably soured between the two leaders. His young… The couple were the progenitors of the Imperial dynasty. https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexios_I_Komnenos&oldid=56378481, Wikipedia:Lokale afbeelding gelijk aan Wikidata, Wikipedia:Commonscat met lokaal zelfde link als op Wikidata, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen. Bohemund’s army was defeated, though, and the Norman leader was forced to sign the Treaty of Devol in 1108 CE, which effectively removed any Norman threat from Byzantine territory for half a century. Weergeven: Alle soorten. Robert Guiscard stierf in 1085. These descendants of Vikings, who had already conquered Byzantine territories in southern Italy between 1057 and 1071 CE, were led by Robert Guiscard (the “Crafty”), the Duke of Apulia. In 1078 CE he married Irene Doukaina, who was distantly related to two former emperors and an ex-Tsar of the Bulgars. They attacked Thracian cities again in 1087 CE, and in 1090 CE, they besieged Constantinople. Pillaging and raping wherever they went, Alexios had them shipped off to Asia Minor as soon as possible where they met a predictably bloody end at the hands of the Seljuk army. Similar concessions, albeit lesser ones (including a reduction of customs duties to 4%), were later granted to Genoa and Pisa whose fleets had been ravaging the Ionian coast. Under Michael VII Doukas Parapinakes (1071–1078) and Nikephoros III Botaneiates (1078–1081… Hoewel dit niet bijster Byzantijns was, stond Alexios erop dat zij aan hem een eed van trouw als leenman moesten afleggen. ), een weg baande door het Byzantijnse rijk. You as well. Alexios Komnenos, (murd. C Coins of Manuel I Komnenos (7 F) Then the tide began to turn when the Norman army was hit by a devastating wave of typhoid fever in 1085 CE and Robert was one of its victims. That Alexios I favoured John to succeed him is made obvious by the elevation of his son to the position of co-emperor. Circular inscription, beginning at 6:30. John II succeeded his father as ruling basileus in 1118, but had already been proclaimed co-emperor by Alexios I on September 1, 1092. A second Diocletian, it was Alexios I Komnenos that saved the empire from destruction from the Normans then the Pechenegs and then the Turks. 1183), who was married to Maria Doukaina, and had two short-lived sons. Sorteren op: Persoonlijke volgorde. Alexios, een uitstekend politicus en diplomaat, werd keizer van een bankroet en wanhopig land. The emperor struggled to gain the necessary cash to pay the mercenaries he employed in his army, and for this reason, he melted down many Church valuables and raised taxes to four times their previous levels - payable in cash or labour. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Initially a movement aimed at Byzantine cultural imperialism, it spread across Western Europe and even to the heart of the Byzantine Empire. In Anatolië ontstond er een nieuw rijk, het Sultanaat van Rûm, onder de leiding van Kilij Arslan I, met als hoofdstad Nicea, bakermat van het christendom (zie Eerste Concilie van Nicea). Jun 8, 2020. However, Alexios' influential wife, Irene, favoured the Caesar Nikephoros Bryennios, the husband of her eldest child Anna Komnene. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The economy was also stuttering with Nikephoros forced to devalue the gold nomisma, the main coinage of Byzantium. All rights reserved. In greco: Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouil I Komninos, fu basileus dei romei dal 28 novembre 1143 fino alla sua morte. Things were not always tranquil at home for Alexios either, with a revolt springing up in 1095 CE. Hoewel hy nie die stigter van die dinastie was nie, was dit tydens sy bewind dat die Komnenos-dinastie op sy magtigste was. The Byzantine Empire c. 1090 CEby Spiridon MANOLIU (Public Domain). Alexios, understandably, reorganised the Byzantine court titles as part of his restructuring of the state bureaucracy where he mainly placed family connections whom he trusted in positions of power. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Alexios’ father was John Komnenos, a senior military commander of the imperial guard (domestikos of the Scholai), and his mother, Anna Dalassena, was from a respected aristocratic family. In 1087 CE Alexios had a son, John, who became his chosen heir. New Comics. John reigned until 1143 CE, and he would continue the military successes of his father with victories in the Balkans and Asia Minor. Alexios’ policies towards Venice would have significant consequences. Exclude In 1081 CE Robert and his son Bohemund became even more ambitious and attacked Byzantine Greece. Alexios I Komnenos (Greek: Ἀλέξιος Αʹ Κομνηνός, 1048 or 1056 – 15 August 1118), was Byzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118. Basileus_Komnenos. Alexios I Komnenos (Grieks: Αλέξιος Κομνηνός; Latijn: Alexius Comnenus; Nederlands, verouderd: Alexis Comneen) (Constantinopel, 1056 – 15 augustus 1118) was Byzantijns keizer van 1081 tot aan zijn dood in 1118. Web. Alexios had been the crafty one and had signed a treaty of alliance with Robert’s rival Henry IV, the King of the Romans, and paid a hefty fee in gold to Robert’s nephew Abelard to raise a revolt in Italy. 1048 Died: 1118. He excelled in the army and rose to the position of general under Emperor Michael IV (r. 1034-1041 CE), never losing a battle. Alexios came from a military family from Asia Minor, and he had royal blood for he was the nephew of Emperor Isaac Komnenos (r. 1057-1059 CE). In 1081 verkoos Nikephoros III zijn neef Nikephoros Synadenos tot zijn opvolger. ... Komnenos dynasty was in its peak under the rule of John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos. The Pechenegs were joined by their allies the Seljuks, but neither could make any impression on the capital’s famous fortifications, the Theodosian Walls. De Petsjenegen werden volledig vernietigd in de Slag bij Levounion (1091). Alexios I contributed a lot for the restoration of the Eastern Roman Empire. De kern van Anatolië bleef in handen van de Sultan van Rum. John II succeeded his father as ruling basileus in 1118, but had already been crowned co-emperor by Alexios I between 1 September and early November, 1092. Alexios resorted to dissimulation in order to avert Irene's criticism of his choice and her demands that Nikephoros should s… He headed the regency council for her son, Alexios II. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. The Normans, led by Bohemund, besiege Dyracchion. He was the son of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and Maria, daughter of Raymond of Poitiers, prince of Antioch. Under one of these emperors, Romanos IV Diogenes (1067–1071), Alexios served with distinction against the Seljuq Turks. aka Alexios V (EMPEROR) of the EAST HM George I's 15-Great Grandfather. zuidelijk Anatolië en Nicea (Beleg van Nicea) te heroveren. Alexios captured the Bogomil movement leader Basil - not so difficult considering they were pacifists - and had him burned to death in the Hippodrome of Constantinople. Dit gebeuren wekte groot ongenoegen bij Robert Guiscard, de Normandische heerser van Zuid-Italië, wiens dochter verloofd was met de zoon van Michaël VII Doukas en hij viel Byzantium aan (Slag bij Dyrrhachium). The historian T. E. Gregory here summarises the accomplishments of Alexios I Komnenos: He rescued the Byzantine state from the threat of imminent dissolution. Manuel’s widow, Maria of Antioch, and Alexios Komnenos, the protosebastos, spread their favor and the largesse of the imperial treasury narrowly but intensively over Italians and aristocrats. Alexios I Komnenos (1056 - 15 August 1118) ruled over the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118. Alexios certainly had the pedigree to rise to the very top. The Normans, led by Robert Guiscard, attack, The Normans defeat a Venetian naval force, allies of the. Hiermee was de kiem voor de latere oorlogen tegen de kruisvaarders en het westen gelegd. One notable group to be persecuted was the Bogomils which sprang up in Bulgaria renouncing all worldly affairs and proposing civil disobedience to its followers. In 1082 CE the Venetians were granted unrestricted trade across the Byzantine Empire, exemption from customs duties (10% of sales at the time), and even the odd warehouse and quay in Constantinople. Alexios also used marriage alliances to great effect to unify the realm, notably joining the two great and often-feuding families of Komnenos and Doukas. Despite this coronation, the accession of John was contested. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Robert conquered Bari in 1071 CE, Palermo in 1072 CE, and Salerno, the last Lombard stronghold, in 1076 CE. © Valve Corporation. The title was created by Emperor Alexios I Komnenos ((r. Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, not knowing what else to do with such an unusual and unexpected "army", quickly ferried all 30,000 across the Bosporus by 6 August. Alexios deed een beroep op de Koemanen, een Turks sprekend volk dat de Petsjenegen gevolgd was op de steppen van Oekraïne. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. Gen. Another target for Alexios’ Orthodox zealousness was John Italos, the head of a school of philosophy in Constantinople. Once he had taken over the leadership of the Romans, being always a man of action, he at once became immersed in matters of state…Alexios, the master of the science of government, directed all of his innovations towards the good of the Empire itself. A member of the extended imperial family, Alexios came to throne after deposing, blinding, and imprisoning his younger brother Isaac II Angelos. Ancient History Encyclopedia. In 1107 CE the Normans, once more led by Bohemund, besieged Dyracchion. Show: All Types. De edelen waren hier niet blij mee maar gaven uiteindelijk morrend toe en hielpen inderdaad Alexios Verlanglijst van Basileus Alexios VI Komnenos. Actually, it was Alexios himself who had invited mercenaries from the west to help him reconquer Asia Minor by writing letters to both Count Robert of Flanders and Pope Urban II - and come they did, albeit with the grander aim of retaking Jerusalem for Christendom. Basil Megas Komnenos (Medieval Greek: Βασίλειος Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Basileios Megas Komnēnos) (died 6 April 1340) was Emperor of Trebizond from August 1332 until his death in 1340. Voorlopig echter werd Byzantium steeds sterker. Alexios, een uitstekend politicus en … Hij kwam al snel in conflict met Alexios. HRE Ferdinand I's 12-Great Grandfather. by Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA). By the time of his death Byzantium was once again the most powerful state in the eastern Mediterranean. U.S. President [WASHINGTON] 's 20-Great Grandfather. Alexios was not shy about intervening in religious affairs, either. Alexios held the Normans back in 1082 CE despite defeats in the field and forced Robert to return to Italy to defend his interests at home. Cite This Work Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus (Medieval Greek: Αλέξιος Β′ Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Komnēnos) (10 September 1169 – October 1183) was Byzantine emperor from 1180 to 1183. He holds a labarum in the right hand and a globus cruciger in the left. Born: aft. Alexios I Komnenos (Alexius Comnenus) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 1081 to 1118 CE. Zij stichtten Kruisvaardersstaten, die vazalstaten werden van het Byzantijnse rijk. Alexios may well have planned for a few new Christian kingdoms to act as a useful buffer on the empire’s border, and so he directed them to free parts of Asia Minor from the Seljuks. ); prob. The emperor’s life was recorded in the Alexiad, written by his daughter Anna Komnene. Er was zelfs weer een vloot, hoewel het feodale element wel steeds sterker werd in de staat. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Niketas Choniates alone tells of the actions by which John II secured his own accession to power. Alexios’ eldest daughter, Anna Komnene, was for a time his official heir following her marriage to Constantine Doukas, the son of Michael VII (r. 1071-1078 CE). Reactions: Ddmkm122 and Basileus_Komnenos. Hun tegenspeler Kilij Arslan I had lering getrokken uit de eerste kruisvaart en had een aantal bondgenootschappen met rivaliserende moslimvorsten weten tot stand te brengen. There are apparently a lot of familiar faces around here from SB and AH as well. Known for her piety, she was, nevertheless, as ruthless and able a politician as any male member of the court. Alexios was the son of the Domestic of the Schools John Komnenos and Anna Dalassene, and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). Een compromis was het huwelijk tussen Alexios I en Irene Doukas in 1081. When Constantine Doukas died an early death, Anna married the gifted general Nikephoros Bryennios the Younger and plotted with her grandmother, Anna Dalassene, to make her new husband the next emperor, although this plan failed, largely because Nikephoros remained loyal to the official heir John. Considered a heretic for his Neoplatonism and picked out as a scapegoat warning for those who insisted on mixing philosophy and theology, John Italos was condemned in 1082 CE. HM George I's 16-Great Grandfather. When Alexios died of disease on 15 August 1118 CE, his son John became emperor as John II Komnenos. Bohemund the Norman would turn up again in Byzantine affairs 12 years after his last encounter with Alexios, when he led the First Crusade which arrived in Constantinople in 1097 CE. Led by Nikephoros Diogenes, the plot was quashed, and emperor’s mother had the ringleader blinded. Cartwright, M. (2017, December 12). Much better than Nicaea. Met deze keuze vervreemde hij zowel de Doukai als de Komnenen van hem waarop Alexios … Ancient History Encyclopedia, 12 Dec 2017. ... he granted such privilege towards the Venetians when they managed to help the basileus defeat Norman invaders in A.D. 1082. "Alexios I Komnenos." Isaac played a major role in the rise to the throne of his younger brother, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos ((r. According to his niece, the historian-princess Anna Komnene (Alexiad, 77–78), he was physically similar to his younger brother, the future emperor Alexios, though … The aged Nikephoros saw the writing on the wall and abdicated, later retiring to a monastic life. Alexios then managed to retake Dyracchion (aka Durazzo), an important port in Dalmatia, and the Norman conquest of Greece collapsed. Alexios II Komnenos (1180–1183) ... Alexios II standing, wearing a crown and a loros, an end of which is draped over the left wrist. This was in return for their crucial naval help in battling the Normans, but it would prove to be an overly generous act which hurt the Byzantine purse for decades to come and allowed Venice to develop a damaging stranglehold on trade in the East, thus establishing itself as one of the great naval powers of the Mediterranean. She was also one of the mistresses of Andronikos I Komnenos. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. De winter van 1090-1091 was een zware tijd voor de stad. He is believed to have had Maria of Antioch (widow of Manuel I) as a mistress. Bohemund, not best pleased to find out his army had been abandoned by the Byzantines, decided to renege on his vow to return all captured territory to the emperor and kept the city for himself. Bij Alexios' dood ging de troon naar zijn zoon Johannes, hoewel zijn vrouw en dochter Anna probeerden hun gunsteling, Anna's echtgenoot Bryennius, op de troon te zetten. ... His misrule and corruption rotted away the foundations supporting the First Komenian Restoration that Basileus Alexios I and Ioannes II had so painstakingly worked to build after the Empire's disastrous defeat at Manzikert in 1071. Alexios zette hen zo gauw mogelijk de Bosporus over. Meanwhile, on 15 July 1099 CE, the Crusaders finally achieved their aim and Jerusalem was taken, the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants ruthlessly slaughtered. Alexios came from a military family from Asia Minor, and he had royal blood for he was the nephew of Emperor Isaac Komnenos (r. 1057-1059 CE). Alexios' father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was thus succeeded by four emperors of other families between 1059 and 1081. Dit concilie gaf groen licht voor de Eerste Kruistocht. Although he was not the founder of the Komnenian dynasty, it was during his reign that the Komnenos family came to full power. Alexios invited mercenaries from the west to help him reconquer Asia minor by writing letters to both Count Robert of Flanders & Pope Urban II. Byzantine Hyperpyron of Alexios Iby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CC BY-SA).
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